Attested ruler of Dynasty '0' of Lower Egypt, Naqada IIIb-c1, c. 3200-3150 b.c.e. The only archaeological evidence is His listing from the Polermo Stone fragment of possible 5th dynasty construction as the third ruler of Lower Egypt of the era. Common name in Egyptology is 'Teyew' or 'Tiu'

Morphological Analysis

Tiw's hieroglyps are etched on a slab of stone resembling black basalt. Three single hieroglyps written in the old kingdom style, in a single column, right-left, top-bottom.

Bread Loaf

Other than the bread loaf it represents, it is used as a basic consonant for the voiceless alveolar plosive phoneme 't.' It is also used as a suffix pronoun for 'you, your.' However, as the loaf is in the first position it does not indicate being used as a pronoun.

Bread, loaf

When the loaf is not utilized as a phoneme, it is designated with the determinitive for bread loaf. This provides evidence of its use as a phoneme and not to represent a bread loaf.

DWty - Thoth

This however shows bread to be related to Thoth. In both instances, the god is written only with the loaf, or with the word bread and the additional determinitive of a seated god. This has been widely interpreted as being a cryptic way to write the god's name and is not even transliterated in texts by Egyptologists as 't.' These, including the Palermo Stone, have a determinitve of a seated ruler/god. It could lend evidence that instead of the bread loaf being simply a phoneme it in fact instead a cryptic spelling of the god Thoth.

The Ibis and the loaf

DHwty - Thoth

tAxx - What is good, profitable, and useful

tAxxt - arable land

tAxxtAwy - Horizon Dwellers

There are several depictions of ibises as hieroglyphs. These two are the Sacred ibis, which of course is utilized in the word DHwty - Thoth, and the hooded ibis, which is utilized in the spelling of the rest. The hooded ibis is identified as Geronticus comatus, a species that once existed in Egypt but migrated further south. The Sacred ibis is Threskionis aethiopicus, as attested by Herodotus and Pliny.

Loaf and Reed Leaf

Several words begin with the morpheme loaf and reed leaf, but with different endings than the quail. Disregarding the words with additional letters, one word, meaning 'to trample (enemy),' stands out as a possibility of being related to tiw.

Clearly the morpheme is doubled in the words. However given the multiple examples of abbreviation in Egyptian texts can lend to the hypothesis that tiw is an abreviated version of titi.w.

The quail chick is often used as a suffix participle in addition to a basic phoneme. The possibility of the quail chick in tiw being a suffix participle is a distinct possibility.

As an enclitic negative participle in Egyptian Grammar it is a suffix denoting a negation of the a subjuntive, or a wish/command. While this is an obscure Old Kingdom participle, it is lacking the proper syntax in any interpretation to be the enclitic negative participle. If say ti was an abbreviation of titi, the translation 'will not trample the enemy.' This is not only a passive phrase, as it lacks a pronoun, and would imply the bity himself does not trample the enemy, and would be a very weak name for a ruler. Additionally if we were to interpret it as t.i.w, with the reed leaf being a new kingdom or later use of the suffix pronoun 'I, me, my,' this would also be grammatically incorrect. The suffix w is placed before the pronoun, and loaf is a noun, the negaive participle is used with verbs.

The quail is also a noun meaning 'property.' Could this be part of the name tiw? With the placement of the quail separately from the loaf and reed leaf this is a possibility. A reason could be that titi was abbreviated when this was copied, whether in the 6th dynasty or the 26th dynasty. The rulers of Lower Egypt are still considered legendary as there is no more evidence to support their existence. We see numerous examples of hieroglyphics being abbreviated for space or time constraints, so at this time it is definitely possible this ruler's name means 'trample on enemy property.' This could allude to a battle strategy akin to 'scorched earth,' where instead of sacking or looting the enemy this bity engaged in intimidation warfare to maintain his authority. This is grammatically accurate, as the verb is always placed before the noun, and in titles or names superfluous pronouns and prepositions are eliminated.

The quail is also used as a dependant pronoun meaning 'I, me.' This was first seen with the seated man determinitive which is given the phonetic value 'i.' later the seated man was dropped in writings but it is supposed the phonetic value still remains as 'wi.' However as this is a dependant pronoun this use makes no grammatical sense.

The quail is also a participle of admiration translated as 'how!' It is an abreviated form of quail with two slashes 'wy.' This however precedes the adjective in a nominal phrase so this does not apply to the bity.

As a final analysis of the quail chick in the suffix position is the suffix pronoun of the quail with the three lines denoting plurality meaning, 'they, them, their.' If we were to embrace the hypothesis of tiw being an abbreviation of titi.w, a possible translation can be 'tramples them.' Ancient Egyptian rulers moreoften utilize their throne names rather than their birth name, and their names are derived by in part his 'mission' or agenda. This could indicate yet another militaristic ruler. The transition from farmer to warrior (influenced in part by the Horus kings in the South) could lend to this interpretation.

Ultimately, the loaf, reed leaf, and quail are all used as primary consonants. There is one homophone, but as displayed it is spelled completely differently. Even if the king Tiw and the word 'tiw' meaning yes are related, this knowledge reveals nothing about this bity's possible character.


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